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For six years after the Prime Minister's dying, his son my site Muzaffar maintained the unity of the dominion. Then adopted the deluge of grasping adventurers, rival khalifs, and impudent pretenders. The Spaniards, who formed in spite of everything the bulk of the inhabitants by which they were merged, loved to be dominated by a king; they appreciated a dynasty, and have been proud of thememories of the great Omeyyad home. The rule of a minister, nevertheless just and good, was not their concept of government; the king should rule by himself.

The struggle was solely decided when the Khalif of Damascus despatched over a model new and able governor, who divided the hostile factions by giving them settlements in cities far other than one another, and

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of their leaders. Thus the Egyptian contingent of the Syrian army was settled in Murcia, which they re-christened "Misr" or Egypt; the lads of Palestine at Sidonia and Algeciras; the individuals of the Jordan at Regio , these of Damascus in Elvira , and the battalion of Kinnesrin at Jaen. This young man was the new ruler whom Charlemagne had so unsuccessfully come to expel, and learn the read the article facts here now his name was Abd-er-Rahmān the Omeyyad. The legend runs that a while earlier than this, as King Roderick was seated on his throne within the historical metropolis of Toledo, two old males entered the audience chamber. They have been arrayed in white robes of historical make, and their girdles had been adorned with the indicators of the Zodiac and hung with innumerable keys. One day, Mr Earnshaw got here again from Liverpool with a foundling, that he determined to name Heathcliff because of his black hair and eyes, symbol of mystery.

They went earlier than the Kādy and did their finest to excite his anger by blaspheming the name of Mohammed and his faith. Two young and exquisite women, professing most sincerely the faith of "peace on earth and goodwill in path of males," stood before the Justice of the Peace with lips full of cursing and bitterness, reviling his religion as "the work of the devil." But the nice choose was to not be roused so simply. He was weary of all this hysterical mania, and had many a time pretended to be deaf when people thrust themselves upon dying; he thought it was a pity of these two girls, and wished they might not be so foolish. But they endured in their heroic objective, and he needed to put them in prison.

He paid homage and tribute to Fernando and his son Alfonso the Learned, not, nonetheless, without more than one wrestle to free himself from their yoke; and from that point forward Granada with its surrounding territory was usually let alone by the Christian kings, who had sufficient to do to settle their already huge acquired territory and to eliminate native pretenders. From time to time the Moors made war upon their Christian neighbours, but finally they needed to make up their minds to a secondary position.The sum of twelve thousand gold ducats was the tribute paid by Mohammed X., in 1463, as a situation of peace. During these two centuries the Moorish territory had suffered little diminution. Gibraltar had been misplaced and won and misplaced once more; different locations, notably Algeciras, had turn out to be part of the Christian dominions; however the common extent of the Moslem realm remained within the third quarter of the fifteenth century a lot what it had been in the first half of the thirteenth. Guided by Mūsa, whose mettle was of the finest, he girded on his armour, and started to carry the struggle into the enemy's quarters.

Then followed the abomination of desolation, the rule of the Inquisition, and the blackness of darkness by which Spain has been plunged ever since. In the land where science was as soon as supreme, the Spanish doctors grew to become famous for nothing but their ignorance and incapacity, and the discoveries of Newton and Harvey were condemned as pernicious to the religion. The sixteen thousand looms of Seville quickly dwindled to a fifth of their historic quantity; the humanities and industries of Toledo and Almeria faded into insignificance; the very baths—public buildings of equal ornament and use—were destroyed because cleanliness savoured too strongly of rank infidelity. The land, deprived of the skilful irrigation of the Moors, grew

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impoverished and uncared for; the richest and most fertile valleys languished and have been abandoned; a lot of the populous cities which had filled every district of Andalusia fell into ruinous decay; and beggars, friars, and bandits took the place of scholars, merchants, and knights.

Twice did he drive Sancho from the sphere, and when the forces of Navarre have been bolstered by those of Leon, and the Christians had the most effective of the natural place, the Sultan delivered battle with them in the Val de Junqueras , andtotally routed their mixed array. Incensed by the obstinate defence of the borderers, the Moslems put the garrison of Muez to the sword; and it is unfortunately true that in some of these campaigns the Moors imitated the barbarities of their antagonists, particularly when their armies included a considerable admixture of African troops, who have been notoriously savage. The earliest

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province to shake off the authority of the Khalif was Andalusia. To perceive how this happened, we should do not neglect that the Khalifs didn't succeed one another in a single unbroken line of household inheritance. After the primary 4 (or "orthodox") Khalifs, Abu-Bekr, Omar, Othmān, and Aly, who have been elected roughly by well-liked vote, the Syrian celebration set up Moāwia as Khalif at Damascus, and from him sprang the family of the Omeyyad Khalifs, so called from their ancestor Omeyya.

Ibn Beytar, the botanist, travelled everywhere in the East to find medicinal herbs, on which he wrote an exhaustive treatise; and Averroes, the thinker, shaped the chief hyperlink in the chainwhich connects the philosophy of ancient Greece with that of mediæval Europe. No speech or tackle was full with out some scrap of verse, improvised on the spur of the moment by the speaker, or quoted by reminiscence from some famous poet. The entire Moslem world seemed given over important link to the Muses; Khalifs and boatmen turned verses, and sang of the loveliness of the cities of Andalusia, the murmur of her rivers, the gorgeous nights beneath her tranquil stars, and the delights of love and wine, of jovial company and stolen conferences with the lady whose curving eyebrows had bewitched the singer. Oriental praise is apt to be somewhat excessive flown; but Cordova really deserved the praise that has been lavished upon it. In its current state it is impossible to kind any conception of the extent and fantastic factor about the old Moorish capital within the days of the Great Khalif.

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